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BREXIT

Britons in Europe hold breath as MPs set to vote on Brexit deal

Britons across Europe faced a crucial day on Tuesday with Theresa May's Brexit deal set for a crunch vote in parliament. If, as expected, it fails to get the green light, then campaigners are demanding action to protect citizens' rights.

Britons in Europe hold breath as MPs set to vote on Brexit deal
Photo AFP

On Tuesday the House of Commons, the UK's lower house, will vote on what is probably the most important parliamentary vote in Britain in decades.

MPs will decide whether to back Prime Minister Theresa May's much criticized Brexit Withdrawal Agreement or vote it down and provoke parliamentary chaos.

No group of people will be more glued to TV screens than the 1.2 million Brits living throughout Europe, whose futures and indeed peace of mind and quality of life hinge on the result.

If the Brexit deal is passed by MPs in Westminster it will at least allow most Britons in Europe to continue as they were, albeit without the freedom of onward movement that will impact many livelihoods.

But if Theresa May's deal is rejected then it leaves Britons in Europe living in yet more anxious limbo and facing the prospect of all the upheaval that would come as a result of the UK crashing out of Europe without a deal.

'934 days of limbo'

Kalba Meadows from the British in Europe (BiE) and Remain in France Together (RIFT) campaign groups told The Local the situation for Britons living in the EU is nothing short of “shameful”.

“While the eyes of the UK and EU are on politicians and the vote, we, the ordinary Brits living in the EU, are on day 934 of our limbo and still have no idea what our status will be in just 74 days time.

“We should have been removed from the equation months ago through a separate citizens' rights agreement covering us and the EU citizens living in the UK. “

The fact that two and a half years after the shock referendum in June 2016 the futures of British citizens in Europe and of EU nationals in the UK still hang in the balance shows they are just an afterthought to those in charge of negotiations, said Meadows.

The impact of living for so long with so little certainty over what the future holds has had a devastating impact on the mental and physical health of many, particularly retirees, who have seen their pensions decimated by the falling pound.

“The human cost of what's happening now is huge: not just the phenomenal stress of living with this ongoing uncertainty – which we're seeing every single day in our members – but the sense that as human beings we don't really matter enough to either the UK or EU. Frankly, it's shameful,” said Meadows.

READ ALSO: 'Better than no deal': Do Brits in Europe hope Theresa May's deal succeeds?

The desire for the limbo to end means many Brits in Europe are hoping Theresa May's bill is backed by MPs.

“If there is going to be a Brexit then for us UK citizens living in the EU May's deal is a good one,” said Robert Neil, a British resident of Crete, Greece. “It has lots of certainty and guarantees, unlike a no deal. A no deal could be a disaster.”

But many Britons in Europe believe the deal should be rejected because it denies them the right to onward freedom of movement and leaves them “landlocked” in the country they are currently residing in.

Many are still holding out for a second referendum and would be prepared to go through a few more anxious weeks and months if it means the British people had the chance to vote again.

Paul Hearn, a Briton based in France said: “My hope is that Parliament will stop Brexit, soon after voting against the proposed deal, adding that “a People's Vote is the only fallback position.”

If, as expected, Theresa May loses her vote then British in Europe, an umbrella group for campaigners across Europe is demanding the Prime Minister takes action to secure the rights of British citizens in the EU and the three million EU nationals in Britain.

“If Theresa May loses the vote tonight, she should immediately commit to ring-fencing the existing rights of @The3Million and @BritishInEurope and call on the EU27 to do the same, in an international treaty. It would give people the security to go about their lives as before,” the group tweeted.

But given citizens have been treated as bargaining chips throughout the whole negotiation process it is unlikely that Theresa May will suddenly start acting in their interests.

The reality is that more limbo, more uncertainty, and more anxiety lies ahead.

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BREXIT

Is new court ruling the end for Britons fighting to remain EU citizens?

The Court of Justice of the European Union confirmed on Thursday that Brexit really does mean that Britons are no longer EU citizens. Claudia Delpero looks at whether there's any other way they can keep their rights.

Is new court ruling the end for Britons fighting to remain EU citizens?

The Court of Justice of the European Union confirmed on Thursday that Britons lost EU citizenship when the UK left the EU, on 1st February 2020. 

It is the first time the EU’s top court has rules on the matter, after a number of legal cases challenged this specific Brexit outcome. The decision also sets a precedent should other countries decide to leave the bloc in the future. 

What has the EU Court decided?

The Court of Justice decided on a case brought by a British woman living in France.

Before Brexit, she could vote and stand as a candidate in her town of residence, Thoux. But after the UK withdrawal from the EU, she was removed from the electoral roll and excluded from the municipal elections that took place in March 2020, during the transition period.  

As the mayor refused her appeal to restore the registration, she took the case to the regional court in Auch, which agreed to request an interpretation of the rules to the EU top court. 

Julien Fouchet, the barrister supporting her and several other cases on the EU citizenship of British nationals, argued that the loss of EU citizenship and voting rights was disproportionate. It would also be contrary to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, given that the woman also lost her voting rights in the UK, having lived abroad for more than 15 years.

Alice Bouillez, who has lived in France since 1984 and is married to a French national, could have applied for French citizenship, but did not do so because she said “this was not necessary” before Brexit and, as a former UK official, she had taken an oath of allegiance to the Queen.

On Thursday the Court of Justice announced the decision about her case. The court ruled that the “possession of the nationality of a member state is an essential condition for a person to be able to acquire and retain the status of citizen of the Union and to benefit fully from the rights attaching to that status.”

The court therefore confirmed that British nationals automatically lost their EU citizenship as a result of Brexit and, as a consequence, Britons also lost their voting and electoral rights in municipal elections in the EU (unless the country where they live set different rules). 

What is EU citizenship?

EU citizenship was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht of 1992, when borders were opening and the bloc was integrating economically after the end of the Cold War. 

Under the treaty, every person holding the nationality of an EU member state is a citizen of the Union. EU citizenship is additional and does not replace nationality, the treaty specifies. But this creates the first form of a transnational citizenship that grants rights across borders.

EU citizens have the right to access each other’s territory, job market and services under the principle of non-discrimination. If they are economically active, they have the right to reside in other EU states and be joined by family members, access healthcare at the same conditions of nationals (for emergency treatment also when travelling temporarily), obtain social security benefits and see their professional qualifications recognised.

Beyond free movement, at the core of EU citizenship there are also political rights, such as participating in the European Parliament election, voting and standing as candidates in municipal elections when living in other EU countries, receiving consular protection from other EU states outside the EU, and taking part in European Citizens’ Initiatives asking to the EU to legislate on certain matters. 

Which EU citizenship rights have Britons lost with Brexit? 

For British citizens who were living in the EU before Brexit, the Withdrawal Agreement protects some of these rights. Britons covered by deal have their residence, access to work and education, healthcare, social security and qualifications secured, but only in the country where they were living before Brexit.

But the right to free movement in other EU states, consular protection in third countries, and the political rights attached to EU citizenship were lost, the Court confirmed. 

For British citizens in the UK, the trade and cooperation agreement has preserved some social security rights and, in theory, the possibility to have professional qualifications recognized when moving to an EU country. These provisions however lack details and may take a long time before they work in practice. 

As the “European Union” no longer features on British passports, the possibility to access EU lanes at airports to skip passport control queues has also vanished. 

“The loss of those treasured rights has been clear to those of us living in the EU from the early days of Brexit. But for Brits in the UK, the realities of life outside the EU, and the consequences of Brexit, are only just dawning. Long queues at the borders, roaming charges, obstacles to working abroad, etc. are the new reality,” said Sue Wilson, Chair of the group Remain in Spain. 

While she said the court’s decision was “no real surprise,” she argued that “this is not the Brexit the public were promised, or that the majority voted for.”

Can British citizens get some of these rights back?

Julien Fouchet was disappointed at the Court decision and promised to continue the legal fight, bringing the case at the European Court of Human Rights (which is not an EU institution). 

Other two cases on the matter of EU citizenship for British nationals are still pending at the Court of Justice of the EU. One of them aims to determine whether EU citizenship is a “fundamental status” that cannot be removed but Thursday’s decision could have already provided the answer.

Another option to reconsider some of the rights is the renegotiation of EU-UK trade agreement, when it will be reviewed in 2025. 

Meanwhile, the EU is revising the rules for non-EU citizens living in EU countries on a long-term basis, making it easier to move across borders. 

Applying for citizenship is so far the only option to regain voting rights, although not all EU countries allow dual nationality. 

Sue Wilson, who has long campaigned for the UK to stay in the EU, said: “There is only one way to restore the loss of our rights, and that’s to rejoin the single market, rejoin the customs union, and eventually, rejoin the European Union… Until that day, we will continue to be second class citizens whose rights have been diminished for the sake of an ideology.”

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