“I want to thank the fans, the team, the German Football Association, the coaches and the support staff,” the Manchester United midfielder wrote on his Facebook page.
Schweinsteiger debuted for the national team against Hungary in June 2004 and went on to win over 100 caps, playing at every major tournament since Euro 2004 in Portugal.
In his 120 appearances for the national team he scored 24 goals.
“I was able to experience indescribably beautiful and successful moments during the 120 appearances,” Schweinsteiger wrote.
Winning the World Cup in 2014 was “a historical and emotional achievement that will not be repeated in my career.”
“Therefore it's right that I step back from the national team for qualifying for the 2018 World Cup and wish the squad all the best.
“It was an honour to play for you,” he said to the German public. “Thank you for everything that I experienced with you.”