The 32-year-old former Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) worker is accused of treason, infringing official secrets and corruption after passing secrets to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in exchange for cash.
Prosecutors said in a statement on Thursday that they had filed charges at the state court (Oberlandesgericht) in Munich.
The alleged spy joined the BND in 2007 and worked for the CIA from 2008, they said.
He passed documents and confidential internal information about the work and personnel of the BND to his American handlers in exchange for payments totalling €95,000.
His downfall came in July 2014, when he was caught passing three classified documents to the Russian consulate in Munich.
The case caused uproar in German politics and led to the government expelling the CIA station chief in Berlin last July, when tensions over National Security Agency (NSA) spying in Germany reached fever pitch.