Vigils mark Nazi pogrom anniversary
AFP · 10 Nov 2013, 10:56
Published: 10 Nov 2013 10:56 GMT+01:00
- Historian questions Kristallnacht catalyst (08 Nov 13)
- Merkel warns of pogrom anniversary backlash (02 Nov 13)
- Berlin shops 'smash glass' to mark pogrom (01 Nov 13)
- Jewish leaders urge Germans to remember Nazi pogrom (09 Nov 09)
Rather than conducting one central memorial event, Germany this year is seeing smaller commemorations throughout the weekend including striking art projects, Twitter initiatives and silent vigils.
The attacks of November 9th and 10th, 1938, saw Nazi thugs plunder Jewish businesses throughout Germany, torch synagogues and round up about 30,000 Jewish men for deportation to concentration camps.
At least 90 Jews were killed in the orgy of violence, also known as 'The Night of Broken Glass', which historians say ushered in the start of the Nazis' drive to wipe out European Jewry.
As part of the unconventional memorials, Berliners and tourists during the day polished around 5,000 "Stolpersteine" memorials for Jews in their neighbourhoods.
The "stumbling blocks" are small plaques bearing the names of Holocaust victims embedded in the street in front of their last known address, along with their dates of birth and facts about their deportation.
"It's sad for me, very, very sad," said Tamar Maier, an Israeli whose family fled Vienna after their business was smashed during Kristallnacht, as she cleaned one of the plaques.
"I think of all these people, who didn't know what was happening... It's simply horrible. And that's why it's very important to remember, it's essential to do so."
City magazines have printed advertisements for the campaign, complete with an attached cleaning cloth for volunteers.
Meanwhile around 120 retailers in Berlin have affixed adhesive film to their shop windows depicting the jagged pattern of broken glass to commemorate the destruction levelled against Jewish merchants.
The stickers were concentrated in areas of central Berlin that were targeted by the Nazi looters in 1938, with participants including Germany's most famous department store aDeWe.
President Joachim Gauck paid his respects at a synagogue in the eastern city of Eberswalde near Berlin which was destroyed in the rampage, and where there is now a memorial made from the building's rediscovered foundations and freshly planted trees.
He was due to travel to nearby Frankfurt an der Oder, where he was to speak ahead of a memorial concert.
Churches in Berlin have planned a silent march to the site of an obliterated synagogue in the city centre in which Mayor Klaus Wowereit was due to take part.
'Honest, emotional concern'
The head of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, Dieter Graumann, had called for "honest, emotional concern" on the part of Germans on the anniversary and urged continued vigilance against hatred.
"The lesson that we must draw is as simple as it is clear: never again will we allow ourselves to be attacked because of our Judaism. Never again will we allow ourselves to be intimidated," he told Saturday's Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung.
Among some of the more unconventional forms of remembrance this year is a Twitter account, @9Nov38, launched by historian Moritz Hoffmann last month and called "Heute vor 75 Jahren" (75 Years Ago Today), offers historical accounts of the repressive measures.
"Sunrise in Kassel. Few people on the street, but a lot of glass shards and destroyed furnishings in front of more than 20 shops," read one tweet.
The account has already attracted more than 4,200 followers, with organisers saying they hope to reach a younger generation of Germans by harnessing social media.
Against the backdrop of the commemorations, a report by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) showed that anti-Semitism has deepened across
Europe over the past five years, facilitated by social media and file-sharing
Last week Chancellor Angela Merkel urged Germans to be watchful for the
dangers of anti-Semitism, calling Kristallnacht "one of the darkest moments in
While she hailed the flourishing Jewish community in Germany now numbering
more than 200,000 people, she lamented "the reality that no Jewish institution
can be left without police protection".
In Austria, where Jews were also targeted in the wake of the German
annexation, President Heinz Fischer was to speak during ceremonies
organised by the Jewish community.
And in Warsaw, a thousand people chanting "No to fascism and nationalism"
and "Holocaust, never again" marched to the spot from where the
Jews of the Warsaw ghetto were deported to concentration camps.