The ban was requested by ethics prosecutor Michael Garcia, Fifa said, after Beckenbauer refused to answer Garcia's questions on his role as a voting member on the executive committee of football's governing body.
The action means the 68-year-old can not take part in any "football-related activity".
In December 2010 the committee chose the Middle Eastern state of Qatar as 2022 World Cup hosts and Russia for the 2018 tournament.
But it was alleged bribes were paid to Fifa members to secure Qatar's winning bid, promoting an investigation. But Fifa said Beckenbauer, known as the "Kaiser" in Germany, had not been cooperating with that investigation.
A statement from Fifa said: "The deputy chairman of the Fifa Ethics Committee’s adjudicatory chamber, Alan Sullivan, issued the ban at the request of the chairman of the investigatory chamber, Michael J. Garcia. The ban is effective immediately.
"The decision was taken... on the grounds that a breach of the Code of Ethics appears to have been committed.
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"The apparent breach relates to Mr Beckenbauer’s failure to cooperate with an Ethics Committee investigation despite repeated requests for his assistance, including requests that he provide information during an in-person interview or in response to written questions provided in both English and German.
"The case is now the subject of formal investigation proceedings being conducted by investigatory chamber member Vanessa Allard as chief of the investigation."