A heavy toll
After two days of torrential rain, flood waters carried away nearly everything in their path, devastating entire communities.
Western Germany was hit worst by the flooding. The state of Rhineland-Palatinate registered 49 deaths, while North Rhine-Westphalia said 135 were killed. One person died in Bavaria and in all, over 800 were injured.
The total cost of the damage in Germany is estimated to be more than €30 billion.
The floods destroyed railways, roads, bridges, electricity pylons and mobile towers, as well as disrupting the supply of gas, electricity and water in a number of places.
Across the two worst-hit regions, 85,000 households were affected and some 10,000 businesses impacted.
In the east of Belgium, 39 people lost their lives in the high waters. The Wallonia region was particularly badly affected, with some 100,000 people caught up in the catastrophe and 48,000 buildings damaged.
In the 24 hours before the floods, the Ahr valley in Germany saw more than 90 litres (24 gallons) of rain per square metre, while the average for the entire month of July is just 70 litres.
The magnitude of the downpour broke records for Germany since meteorological records began.
Other factors contributed to make the floods worse. After a rainy spring, the earth was already well saturated with water.
At the same time, the region’s steep, narrow valleys channelled the flood waters, while the impermeability of the developed land along the river’s edge stopped much of it from draining away.
IN PICTURES: The aftermath of Germany’s catastrophic floods
Experts have pointed to the influence of man-made climate change, which increases the likelihood of extreme weather events. A warmer atmosphere can hold more water, leading to higher rainfall in shorter spaces of time.
A month after the floods, an international scientific study using statistical models showed the link between global warming and the recent catastrophe.
In the affected zone, stretching from Belgium to Switzerland, they demonstrated that the maximum precipitation had increased by between three to 19 percent due to climate change.
Since the catastrophe, a number of failures in the early-warning system have come to light.
Six days before the disaster on July 8th, the European warning system flagged a high risk of flooding in the region.
The German meteorological service and civil defence also put out warnings.
But these failed to be heeded.
Residents “got the impression it was about heavy rain” but the “magnitude was not signalled” clearly enough, a German official said after the floods.
A criminal inquiry was opened for “negligent homicide”, targeting the Ahrweiler district chief, among others.
The German government now intends to send alerts by phone, a system known as “cell broadcasting”.
Similar to a text message, the warning is sent to the mobile phones of people in at-risk areas. Unlike a normal text, the alert is sent and received even when the network is overloaded.
Officials also want to reinstall sirens, many of which were taken down in recent years.