Hundreds of people turned out at the city's Rathausmarkt square to see the royal pair meet state minister-president Torsten Albig.
They were also greeted by city mayor Bernd Saxe, who accompanied them as they met members of the crowd.
Afterwards they entered the town hall, where they signed the town's “Golden Book” of visitors.
Willem-Alexander and Maxima will spend Thursday and Friday in Germany, along with Foreign Trade Minister Lilianne Ploumen and a delegation of 50 Dutch businesses.
The royal couple had just come from a one-day stop in Denmark, where they were also hoping to boost trade links.
Thursday afternoon's schedule includes a stop in Hamburg, where they will take part in a three-way discussion on energy policy.