In seasonally adjusted terms, Germany exported goods worth a total of €92.8 billion in May, down 1.1 percent from the figure for April, the federal statistics office Destatis said in a statement.
Imports dropped by 3.4 percent to €74.1 billion – their fastest month-on-month fall since November 2012.
That meant the seasonally adjusted trade surplus – the balance between imports and exports – increased to €18.8 billion in May from €17.2 billion in April.
Destatis reported on Monday that industrial production also fell by 1.8 percent in Germany in May – its biggest drop for two years.
The statistics agency said May bank holidays and a poor performance by the construction sector were behind the fall. But it added that "geopolitical factors" may also have had an effect.