A spokesman for her care home in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, said she died peacefully in her sleep overnight on Tuesday.
Henze, who turned 112 in December last year, was born on the Baltic island of Rügen.
She trained as a nurse and lived in Goslar in the Harz mountains in central Germany, where she worked as a librarian.
Henze was an avid reader until old age and stayed mobile with the help of a walking aid.
She also enjoyed the occasional cigarette and glass of wine.
Her body will be donated for scientific research.