The 41-year-old, who has not been named, had moved to the town of Diepholz in Lower Saxony and bought the self-inflatable air mattress as he had no furniture in his new home, Bild newspaper reported.
But the mattress was leaky, so he used an industrial strength puncture repair spray to try and fix it. This reacted with the inbuilt electric pump, causing a violent explosion which threw him across the room, ripped doors off their hinges and smashed windows.
Experts believe that heat from the electric motor ignited the gas in the tyre sealant.
He had to be taken to hospital, where he was treated for minor cuts. But a police spokesman told Bild newspaper the man was lucky to escape with minor cuts and an injured wrist.
Prosecutors are now deciding whether to take action against him for causing the explosion, according to the newspaper.
Surveyors were expected to visit the house on Thursday to see if it was still habitable, but on Wednesday there were only shards of glass left in the window frame while curtains were ripped and roof tiles were lying on the ground, the paper said.