The demonstration, marching under the motto ‘Lüneburg is colourful – against far-Right extremism and racism', blocked the route along which the 250 neo-Nazis had been given permission to march.
They refused an alternative route offered by the police, who then cancelled their permission to demonstrate and escorted them to the train station.
The police said that 167 people were likely to be charged with breaking demonstration rules for blocking the street, while three further cases were likely for resisting the police and insulting an officer.
A police spokesman said that some of the neo-Nazis had attacked officers when told their march was cancelled. Several are likely to be charged with a range of offences including trespass, resisting arrest, incitement and wearing an anti-constitutional symbol.