The man's boat was found washed up on the shore at Höganäs on the south west coast with its sail aloft but its mast snapped.
The Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) in Gothenburg was informed of the sailboat's whereabouts at 7 am on Tuesday. Witnesses however reported having first seen the stranded boat at 8:30 on Monday evening.
The man's boat is believed to have run aground in the stormy waters off the Kullen peninsula before later drifting ashore.
A Danish rescue helicopter and Swedish rescue boats have been sent out to search for the missing man.
Police are also searching for the man on shore with the aid of sniffer dogs. Local authorities have also been in contact with hospitals in the area.
The 58-year-old left Marstrand on the west coast of Sweden on Thursday with the intention of sailing to Heiligenhafen on Germany's Baltic Sea coast.